Which universe is the new Star Trek series in?
Well, it’s complicated.
If you mean literally which universe… All Star Trek series and movies take place in an edited version of our own universe. You could see it as a parallel universe with just some oddly specific differences… but ultimately no matter what, Star Trek does not take place in our current universe.
Well one reason is the density of planets inside the galaxy Star Trek takes place is too high. Next, out of those planets the density of inhabitable planets is too high. Finally, the amount of humanoid life on those planets is too high. It’s simply cannot be our own literal universe.
If you mean what timeline does the new Star Trek takes place in…
Well, it’s like the new Star Wars movies. It is a different timeline, a different story, based off of the original series.
The new movies and TV show have no exact basis inside the Star Trek universe of the past.
Instead all new Star Trek movies and presumably the new TV show take characters from the previous timeline and stories and use them in a new story in a slightly different timeline.